Once the words are making meanings in the reader’s head (Zinc-ing), they need to get on the writer’s wavelength and stay there. Tracking strategies show students how and get them in the habit of doing so. Students practice picking up the cues that keep them comprehending.

“Activate Pronouns” asks students to track pronouns back to their antecedents in order to follow what’s going on in the text. Basic pronouns like, “she,” “he,” or “they,” are covered, as well as pronouns like “it” or “this” or “that” often get overlooked.

“Navigate with Transitions and Punctuation” has students tracking meaning through the author’s use of transitions and punctuation. In a text, writers give signals to guide readers through layers of meaning. Navigators come in the form of punctuation, signal words, and asides. For example, "however" is a signal to expect a contrasting layer of information, whereas a comma or a colon may signal us to expect an explanation.

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